Lab freezers and lab refrigerators have received increasing attention in the press because of their importance is storing vaccines between the time of manufacture and being injected into a patient’s arm. As reported in Scientific American, lab freezers and lab refrigerators play a role in the “COVID Cold Chain.” This post explains how to select a lab freezer or refrigerator for coronavirus vaccines and other temperature-critical products.
The Difference Between Lab Units and Household Units
A lab freezer or refrigerator is designed and constructed to meet much stricter standards than typically found in household or commercial units. Vaccines, other pharmaceuticals, blood and plasma, for example, must be stored within tight temperature ranges to avoid loss of potency or spoilage.
Important Points to Keep in Mind
Proper storage of these and other temperature-sensitive products is strictly governed by organizations such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and agencies such … Read the rest
At this posting Phase 3 clinical trials are underway for COVID-19 vaccines, some of which call for an ultra-low freezer for storage and transport. Examples described in a September Wall Street Journal article notes the unusually cold storage temperatures – as low as -80⁰C – required. Covid-19 vaccine candidates are one of many applications for ultra-low freezers. This post provides you with info on when and how to specify one of these units.
Unlike “ordinary” freezers, ultra-low freezers are not inexpensive. The investment is important when the job is to protect contents of high value and sometimes for long periods of time. More on this below.
Fortunately there are a number of ultra-low freezers on the market to ease the selection of a model that best suits your needs.
What is Meant by Ultra-Low Freezers?
There are freezers, low-temperature freezers … Read the rest
A question posed in the September 5-6, 2020, Wall Street Journal asks “do we have enough freezers?” This relates to the unusually cold storage temperatures – as low as -80⁰C – recommended by certain producers of Covid-19 vaccine candidates in Phase 3 clinical trials.
Proper vaccine storage temperatures have always been a concern as evidenced by the CDC’s continually updating its Vaccine Storage and Handling Toolkit. The Toolkit details stringent recommendations relating to critical considerations such as staffing and training for safe handling, storage and temperature monitoring, inventory management, transport, and emergency vaccine and storage handling.
Earlier, MarketWatch identified Moderna, BioNTech and Pfizer as examples of Covid-19 candidates requiring low temperatures (-20⁰C Moderna) and -70⁰C (BioNTech and Pfizer). Other candidates are J&J Janssen and AstraZenca at between 0⁰ and -10⁰C. In total, some 9 firms have advanced to Phase 3 trials as reported in a Wall Street Journal September … Read the rest
CDC Recommendations for Approved Laboratory, Medical, and Biomedical Refrigerators and Freezers for Vaccine Storage
Maintaining a cold chain through-out the entire vaccine supply chain is critical to the safety and security of vaccines. According to the CDC, the cold chain begins with the cold storage unit at the manufacturing plant, extends to the transport and delivery of the vaccine and proper storage at the provider facility, and ends with the administration of the vaccine to the patient.
Additionally, the CDC stresses in its Vaccine Storage and Handling Pink Book that manufacturers, distributors, public health staff, and health care providers share responsibility to ensure the vaccine cold chain is maintained from the time vaccines are manufactured until they are administered.
To ensure safe vaccine storage, medical grade laboratory, pharmacy, and biomedical refrigerators and freezers must comply with the following CDC recommendations:
- CDC recommends
Health care clinics must exercise care when selecting a compact medical refrigerator to store temperature-sensitive products such as vaccines and other pharmaceuticals. A compact medical refrigerator is a smart choice when space is at a premium, but a small size should not be at the cost of critical features that protect contents. This post provides tips on how to specify a compact medical refrigerator.
Why a Medical Refrigerator is Important
If there is temptation to buy a dormitory or residential-grade refrigerator it must be resisted. In fact, the former is definitely ruled against in the CDC’s Vaccine Storage and Handling Toolkit while the latter may be acceptable under certain conditions. We encourage you to download and review these guidelines, updated for 2020 before you decide on your medical refrigerator.
Especially important is compliance with CDC and Vaccines for Children refrigeration guidelines if your healthcare facility participates in these programs.
The “Cost”… Read the rest
If space is at a premium for safely storing temperature-sensitive pharmaceuticals, lab samples or costly biological specimens, an under counter lab freezer may be the answer. Laboratory freezers are more sophisticated than residential or commercial units. They have features essential to protect contents from temperature excursions. This post provides researchers with useful information to help with their selection process.
What to consider when selecting under counter lab freezers
First, let’s put the dollar sign in perspective. These units will cost more than residential or commercial units. You (and your accounting department) must compare the cost of the lab freezer to the value of its contents.Proper storage temperatures for many pharmaceuticals, specimens and biological samples are defined. Temperature excursions above or below these may result in losses that in some cases may be irreplaceable.The cost of loss due to freezer malfunction is described in the article Cost of Research Lab Freezer … Read the rest
Scientific refrigerators, also called pharmaceutical refrigerators or lab refrigerators, meet stringent requirements essential to protect contents from temperature fluctuations above or below those recommended by content manufacturers. Residential-type refrigerators do not make the grade. Reasons described in this post will help you understand how scientific refrigerators work.
- How scientific refrigerators “make cold”
- The difference between manual and auto defrost scientific refrigerators
- Tips on proper use of your scientific refrigerator
- Ongoing care and maintenance of scientific and pharmaceutical refrigerators
- Tips on moving your scientific refrigerator
How Scientific Refrigeration Equipment Makes Cold
The first thing you need know is that when a liquid evaporates it absorbs heat and when a gas condenses to a liquid it releases heat. Got that? Good.
Let’s start with the receiver where the liquid refrigerant is stored under high pressure. The liquid passes through a thermal expansion valve causing a … Read the rest
To select the correct undercounter/freestanding lab refrigeration system from the Norlake White Diamond series for a small to medium-sized laboratory or healthcare facility you must evaluate a system’s capability to satisfy a number of important criteria. This post explains important criteria to consider. They include:
- required storage capacity
- refrigerator/freezer temperature range
- stable, accurate temperature control
- alarm systems signaling temperature excursions
- auto defrost vs. manual defrost
- compliance with standards
- other useful features
While these criteria apply to any laboratory/scientific refrigeration system, our post focuses on undercounter/freestanding refrigerators and freezers for small to medium-sized facilities. Our examples come from the new line of Norlake White Diamond units now available from Tovatech.
Determine Optimum Storage Capacity
Lab and scientific refrigerators and freezers, as with domestic models used in your home, are available in a wide range of storage capacities. Two things to keep in mind about storage capacity when selecting your unit:… Read the rest
Lab refrigerators and lab freezers come in various sizes and temperature capabilities, many of which are designed for specific storage functions. What you store in these units has a large part in determining the type of unit you purchase. This post will cover decision-making factors such as storage temperature capability and whether manual or auto-defrost equipment should be specified when you choose manual or auto-defrost cold storage units for the lab.
We’ll separately take a look at scientific refrigerators and scientific freezers, then provide suggestions on how to manage defrosting operations.
Always keep in mind that temperature monitoring and alarming is a subject onto itself in laboratory refrigerators and freezers. The defrosting operation by definition signals a change in storage temperature within these units, whether a scientific freezer or scientific refrigerator. We’ll touch on this briefly at the end of our post.
In addition, two important points to include in … Read the rest
Scientific refrigeration equipment includes refrigerators and freezers used to store vaccines, pharmaceuticals, biological samples and similar temperature-sensitive products and specimens for healthcare, R&D and related applications. Scientific refrigerators and freezers have critical performance requirements generally unmet by residential and commercial refrigeration systems. For this reason they are highly recommended to protect contents that lose potency or are otherwise compromised by what are called temperature excursions above or below recommended storage settings. Therefore, selecting scientific refrigeration equipment for your needs is key.
Correct storage temperatures are usually recommended by professional or government organizations. The CDC, for example, recommends in its 2016 Vaccine Storage and Handling Toolkit that frozen vaccines be stored between -50⁰ and -15⁰C (-58⁰ and + 5⁰F); refrigerated vaccines should be stored at 2⁰ and 8⁰C (36⁰ and 46⁰ F). Vaccine manufacturers indicate correct storage temperatures that should apply along what is called the “cold chain” extending from the … Read the rest